Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded

Trio win Nobel Chemistry Prize for evolution research

Trio win Nobel Chemistry Prize for evolution research

Research that engendered new therapies was also recognized with the Nobel for medicine earlier this week when two scientists, James Allison of the USA and Tasuku Honjo of Japan, won the award for work in immune oncology.

According to a statement released by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which is responsible for nominating and selecting the Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry, the three honorees "have been inspired by the power of evolution and used the same principles-genetic change and selection-to develop proteins that solve mankind's chemical problems".

The methods developed by the laureates have been put to work to create new enzymes and antibodies used in promoting a greener chemicals industry, mitigating disease and saving lives.

Arnold was awarded the Nobel for her pioneering work with enzymes, the proteins that act as catalysts to speed up other biochemical reactions. Enzymes produced through directed evolution are used to manufacture everything from biofuels to pharmaceuticals.

Arnold, a breast cancer survivor, is the second woman to win a Nobel Prize this week.

As for Smith, who is only the fifth women to take home a Nobel Prize in chemistry, in 1985, she developed the "phage display" method that eventually became a powerful tool to direct the evolution of antibodies. A phage is a virus that can infect bacteria in such a way as to deceive the microbes into reproducing it. Phage display is a technique that uses this process for creating and screening novel proteins. She would then see the effect each mutation had and choose the variants that could prove to be useful, such as one that could operate in a solvent, rather than a water-based environment. The fruits of their work include the world's top-selling prescription medicine - the antibody injection Humira sold by AbbVie for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.

"Support the professional development of young women, give them opportunities to talk and network, mentor them and nominate them for prizes, Nobel or otherwise".

The academy described the process as being similar to biological evolution. "First I was stunned, like somebody hit me over the head with something and then I started to wake up", she said.

He built up a collection of phages, with billions of antibody varieties on their surface, and engineered them make them more effective.

A University of Missouri professor has been awarded a Nobel Prize. The 77-year-old chemist said his discoveries could not have been made without the earlier work of many others.

The peace prize will be announced on Friday, October 5, and the economics prize will wrap up the Nobel season on Monday, October 8.

Earlier this week, two immunologists, James Allison of the USA and Tasuku Honjo of Japan, won the Nobel Medicine Prize for research into how the body's natural defences can fight cancer.

The Nobel Prize in chemistry, which honors researchers for advances in studying how molecules combine and interact, is being announced Wednesday by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. These scientists were selected for their groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics.

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