Deep Impact: The Science Behind a Possible Comet Collision

Deep Impact: The Science Behind a Possible Comet CollisionThe question of whether the earth will be destroyed by a comet within the lifetime of human existence is a timeless one. Sadly, all those disaster films we’ve seen might not be entirely fictional flights of the imagination. The correct question to be asking, scientists say, is not one of if we’ll be hit, but when. Here’s a few facts to bolster this position:

The earth is already struck by asteroids every year. NASA reports that “as of April 07, 2014, 10897 Near-Earth objects have been discovered.” Most objects that do strike the earth, according to Live Science, are refrigerator-sized and burn up harmlessly in the atmosphere. We did get a sobering “close call” in 1994, however, when Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke into several 2-km chunks that struck Jupiter. The website for the Panoramic Survey Telescope & Rapid Response System asserts that if Earth had been struck instead of Jupiter, we would’ve seen catastrophe on a global scale. And the Tunguska incident, a huge explosion in the Siberian forests caused by asteroid impact in 1908, remains strong in human memory.

Asteroid Apophis is thought to strike the earth in 2036. The evidence for this derives from information gleaned by scientists at the Herschel Space Observatory in early 2013. However, while we know that the possibility exists that Apophis may strike the earth the next time it passes near us (comets and asteroids orbit around the Sun every certain number of years), reports that the odds have been greatly reduced to those of 1-in-10,000, down from the previous estimate of 1-in-40.

Cosmic collisions are thought to be responsible for species extinctions both major and minor in the past. The earth is over 4.5 billion years old, and in that time we’ve had plenty of ugly run-ins with Near-Earth objects (or NEOs). The best known is the asteroid/comet that caused the destruction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. On a more anecdotal note, you don’t even need to rely on the word of scientific journals to understand how enormous a role comets have played in literally shaping the “face” of the earth. On my road trip out West, I encountered the 37-mile-wide Meteor Crater in the Arizona desert, an enormous valley caused by meteorite impact around 50,000 years ago. Seeing the evidence for yourself is enough to make most people think twice about investing in a bomb shelter!

‘Europa Report’ Puts the Science Back into Science Fiction

'Europa Report' Puts the Science Back into Science Fiction

“Europa Report” is one of the most intelligent science fiction space adventures made in a long time, possibly since “2001: A Space Odyssey.” It is a movi4e about an epic space voyage that doesn’t depend a lot on special effects.

The scenario is that sometime in the near future a private corporation puts together an international expedition to explore Jupiter’s moon Europa, an ice covered world, to ascertain whether or not there is life there. Scientists believe, because Europa’s ice layer encloses a relatively warm water ocean, that it is entirely possible.

Unlike quite a few space movies of its type, “Europa Report” does not depend on aliens of anything else not known to science to provide peril and suspense. The crew of the Europa One is menaced by radiation, microgravity, isolation, equipment failure, human error, and all the other attended dangers that a space voyage of its type would entail.

And then there is Europa itself, a world quite unlike anything human beings have imagined. One misstep and Jupiter’s moon can be quite unforgiving. But it is also a world, depicted in the movie, of great wonder and even with the ability to elicit awe.

The movie is incredibly technically accurate. Europa One is a ship that one could believe someone would try to cross the interplanetary gulfs on. If there are any glitches, they were not, as often are, the result of deliberate design “to serve the story,” but by accident.

Character development is somewhat lacking. In this “Europa Report” resembles “2001: A Space Odyssey.” It is more a story oriented movie than it is a character oriented one.

The movie also follows the “found footage” format, similar to “Apollo 18.” It is apparently put together from feeds captured from stationary compartment cameras and suit cams.

“Europa Report” has a limited first release, but is also available as of this writing on demand on some cable systems as well as on iTunes. If intelligent science fiction with an emphasis on science is one’s preference, this movie is well worth a watch.

Are Vaccinations and Autism Causally Linked? Real Science Points to a Surprising Answer

Are Vaccinations and Autism Causally Linked? Real Science Points to a Surprising Answer

As a former college debater, coach, and woman who is currently pregnant, I have been hearing a lot about vaccinations for the past few years. In a recent conversation with my friend, I learned that he and his wife argued about the topic after the birth of their first child. Luckily, the conversation wasn’t really one that my partner and I needed to have, but for those who do there are some things you should consider prior to deciding to count out vaccinating altogether.

The vast majority of media coverage on the subject seems to have started back in 2009 when former Playboy model Jenny McCarthy decided she was as qualified as a doctor to give medical advice concerning vaccinations for children. Of course, McCarthy wasn’t the first to link vaccines and autism, but her voice was one of the loudest and most likely to be heard.

Prior to McCarthy, Dr. Bob Sears published a book entitled The Vaccine Book: Making the Right Decision for Your Child that advocated an alternative vaccine schedule for children. On face, Dr. Sears’ advocacy seems to make sense-logically one might experience more problems or an increased likelihood of adverse reaction if s/he receives multiple injections at once, but according to an article published in the scholarly journal Pediatrics, Dr. Sears’ alternative vaccine schedule is based more on assuaging parental fears than hard science. The truth is, anti-vaccination movements have been around since 1802 as evidenced by this painting in which individuals are depicted as sprouting farm life from their body after receiving vaccination.

Since the beginning of the recent widespread media coverage about vaccinating, however, I have heard of several outbreaks of life threatening diseases that society had long since though were a non-issue-most specifically measles. Doctors like Sears would have individuals believe that these outbreaks are common, but regardless of the fact that measles outbreaks do occur yearly, we have still yet to see definitive proof that vaccines and autism-or a plethora of other ailments-are causally linked or even based in properly conducted research.

According to the World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control (as well as other reputable vetted research institutions) illnesses like the Measles and Pertussis (Whooping Cough) are preventable and are prevented quite well with vaccination.

The truth of the matter is that every single year around 2 million die from illnesses that could have been easily prevented through vaccination-pretty terrifying when you see that there is no research stating that vaccines cause anything besides disease prevention.

Much of what you hear touting that vaccination is bad for your children is either pseudo-science or preying on your insecurities as a parent, of course the choice is yours, but don’t be surprised when I don’t want my child playing with yours. If you still don’t believe what you’re reading here please check out this article, although not written scientifically all of the studies being linked paint a clear picture that not vaccinating your children can ultimately do far greater harm than a minimal scientifically unverified risk.

Best Video Games You Can Download Online

Best Video Games You Can Download Online

There are a lot of games that you can download to your computer. Many are clones of Tetris, and others are just too strange to even try. This list is a compilation of games that I’ve tried and found that they are some of the best out there to offer, regardless of skill level and time.

Saints and Sinner’s Bowling– One of the best bowling games you can find, period. What’s great about this game is that you can just do regular bowling versus a friend or you can participate in the storyline and collect weird-looking bowling balls. Either way, Saints and Sinners Bowling has great mechanics that truly make getting strikes difficult- you won’t bowl a perfect game anytime soon. The sound effects are realistic, and the storyline game really amps up bowling by leaps in bounds by changing the pin sizes, creating hazards, or even making your ball nearly light speed as it heads down the lane.

Diner Dash/Diner Dash 2– This is one of those games that can get addictive really quickly, depending on your determination. It starts off pretty simple: you run a diner where you serve customers. You take care of the seating, the ordering of the food, the delivery, the check, and clean up. But what happens when your customers spill something as you attempt to pick up your other starving customer’s meal? Or you don’t have enough seats at the table? Or you sit the loud cell phone people next to the quiet diners? As the game goes on, the challenges expand to the point where you get tipper’s guilt and start tipping your real life waitresses well beyond 15%. You might see yourself in some of the Diner Dash customers, so play nice!

Virtual Villagers– You and a small group of people are stranded on an island full of mystery. You’re expected to solve the mysteries that pop up as well as grow your own society. Can you survive and make a new life? This game can become very involving because-get this- it plays while you don’t! You can let your Virtual Villagers run the town while you sleep. From researchers to gatherers to breeders (yes, breeders), assign specialties to your people as they grow year to year and gain knowledge. Beware of the surprises in store! Virtual villagers is built for long-time fun.

Lemonade Tycoon 2– Remember the first game where you sold lemonade at stadiums and around the block and you had one stand? LT2 takes it up one heckuva notch. You can have over a dozen stands in many forms, from the wheel-it-yourself stand to the full-fledge lemonade truck, equipped with giant freezers, weather protection and slush machines. You can even put two or three stands in various New York areas like Grand Central Station and the Statue of Liberty. Of course, fickle customers, weather and trends play a part, but you can track almost anything with the report tabs. This game is for the seriously business-minded gamer.

Cake Mania– Much like Diner Dash. You play a professional baker that takes the order, bakes the cakes, and collects the check. Your customer types vary from season to season and order different kinds of cakes. You can wear out your mind easy with this game, too, since you’ll often have to think 10 steps ahead in the later levels. Just remember: The food critic always wants complex cakes in a hurry, and the wedding girl takes no time getting to her “angry” bridezilla side. Play the game and you’ll see what I mean

Family Feud– Just like the television game, this one can cause rivalries in the home in a matter of 10 minutes. You’ll agree with some of the surveys, while others will cause the “wtf” reaction (“what the?!?!”). It’s got an easy layout and hundreds of categories, so this game has another long lifespan.

Magic: The Gathering Online– If you’re a big fantasy head or got inspired by Gandalf in Lord Of The Rings, you can do your best to cast spells and defeat the enemy. This highly-complex game is actually not too hard to learn, but can keep you addicted just from the many options presented to you. This is based on the real life card game that inspired all the Pokemon, Digimon, and Yu Gi Oh! Games, except MTGO is designed for an older crowd that doesn’t watch cartoons like that. You build a library of “spells” by using a deck of cards based on color themes. Red is aggressive, Blue changes things, White mostly defends and heals, and so on. Beware: this addiction can get really expensive! It’s best to talk to an expert before you end up spending a whole lotta dollars getting your game together and battling other people.

Video Games for Family Fun

Video Games for Family Fun

The sky’s the limit when it comes to the variety of video games currently in existence. All too often parents hear negatives about playing video games, when in reality playing video games can actually bring a family closer. This article explores the nuances of playing video games as a family and discusses some of the mutual benefits of doing so.

Video games take on all forms, from the PC style to the new motion detection video game consoles. People of all ages play game apps on their cell phones, iPods, or iPads, and others have multiple game systems including the Xbox 360, the Wii, or the Playstation 3. These games are not a waste of time. Not only do people need fun in their lives, but other skills can also be developed while playing video games with others.

For example, Mass Effect, Knights of the Old Republic (KOTOR), and other role playing games (RPG’s) include a variety of relationship skills. To progress in the game’s story line and “level up”, characters must dialog with each other appropriately.

Tomb Raider, Puzzle Quest, Ratchet and Clank, Lego games, and Uncharted are fun, action oriented puzzle games. They teach skills similar to chess, planning moves ahead of time. They also involve solving riddles by looking at patterns, making matches, or buying supplies much like the age-old games of “Oregon Trail” or “Lemonade Stand”.

When parents get involved with their kids by playing these puzzle or action oriented video games, adults often approach game situations differently. Watching their parents approach a problem helps children to think outside the box in ways they would not have otherwise considered. They develop more logical reasoning skills, for example, by dialoguing out a strategy with an adult over a particular approach to a puzzle.

Children are not the only ones to gain by playing video games as a family. Adults can become more comfortable with technology. They also can feel more connected with their children and open another line of communication with them. Quite often lulls in the game provide excellent moments for a parent to ask their son or daughter about their day, and other moments generate mutual laughter.

All in all, video games are an excellent addition to a family. Granted, a family should not only play video games. They should remain active members of society, too, with a well balanced life. Yet, do not discount video gaming as a family simply by the rumors that sometimes appear on the news. In general, video games create a modern, unique opportunity for a family to bond – an essential element in all families.

Do you play video games as a family? What video games would you suggest playing together? Please leave a comment below!

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Develop Your Own Wellness Recovery Action Plan

Develop Your Own Wellness Recovery Action PlanThis article is an overview of the Wellness Recovery Action Plan or W.R.A.P.. It was developed specifically for consumers experiencing the often debilitating symptoms which characterize mental and emotional illness. There has been a wide and enthusiastic response to W.R.A.P. with the plan being implemented in many recovery and mental health programs across the country. The things you will need to get started are a three ring binder and paper, dividers with tabs, or a computer. You may want to do the plan yourself, but it is recommended that one attend a support group or class. This will provide support as well as structured direction. The following six steps will help you get started.

The first step is to develop your Wellness Toolbox. This is the ground structure of the entire W.R.A.P.. No matter what step you may find yourself on in any given day, you will need to refer back to your toolbox. In developing your toolbox, list all the strategies you now use and could use to maintain wellness ans improve your mood when feeling unwell. It may include things such as, talking to a trusted person, rest, relaxation exercise, physical exercise, journaling, prayer and meditation, support groups, taking medication as prescribed, and a call to a medical or mental health professional.
The Wellness Toolbox and W.R.A.P. are not intended to replace your care through mental health professionals. Use your toolbox as a supplement and incorporate the treatment teams directions into your plan.

In your binder, mark your first tab with “Daily Maintenance List”. Make yourself a list of words which best describe yourself when you feel well. On a new page, list things which you need to do on a daily basis to keep yourself well.Next, think of some things which you might need to do in the future. Read through these daily to stay on track.

Section 2 deals with Triggers. Triggers can be circumstances or events, even smells or colors which make you begin to feel ill. These triggers are often beyond our control but you can learn ways to be aware and minimize resulting symptoms.
On the next tab write “Triggers”. On the following page write things which you know can cause a worsening of symptoms. A persons experience is often the best tool we have when it comes to trigger awareness. On the next page, make a plan using the Wellness Toolbox. Things such as calling a friend or sponsor, a support group, or prayer and meditation.

The next section addresses Early Warning Signs. These are similar in nature to physical health issues. When you get sick with the flu or a cold you might first experience a stuffed nose or a scratchy throat along with a general feeling of being unwell. Typical early warning signs in mental illness can be changes in feelings, thought, and or behavior. Examples include sleep and appetite changes, loss of energy and motivation. One may become suspicious, depressed, anxious, or irritable. They are unique to your experience.
On the next tab, place “Early Warning Signs”. Page 1 should be a list of warning signs which you have experienced. Using your Wellness Toolbox, next make an action plan to use if you begin to experience early warning signs such as phoning a mental health provider or a friend.

Section 4 deals with how to manage when you are experiencing an increase in bothersome or uncomfortable symptoms. Symptoms can be to the point where they are serious but you can still take action on your own behalf. This time is critical and one must act immediately to avoid an escalation to crisis.
On the section 4 tab, write ” When Things Are Breaking Down “. List the symptoms unique to your experience which may indicate things are close to a crisis. The following page should include things you can do when you feel control may be slipping away. Use items in your toolbox to write this plan.

You do all you possibly can to stay well. Take your medications, go to support groups, and make your appointments. However, even then, one may find themselves in a situation which requires others to intervene to insure safety and well being. You may need others to take responsibility for your care. This section of W.R.A.P. instructs others how to care for you!Feeling as though you are in control of your care goes a long way to insure your needs are met and others know what to do when and if a crisis occurs. The “Crisis Plan” is the last section but not the last in importance. Your “Crisis Plan” should include the following, symptoms which indicate to others action needs to be taken on your behalf and who you wish to take that action, current medications, medications which may help, and those to avoid, acceptable treatment facilities, actions to be avoided, and helpful actions(whom to call,etc.).

I wish you all the best with the writing of your W.R.A.P. plan. The plan has been successfully implemented in many treatment facilities since it was first designed in 1997. It’s popularity has a lot to say for it’s worth as a tool. Also, it is virtually cost free! Be ever healthy and well.

Wellness Programs at Work: How to Create Your Own

Wellness Programs at Work: How to Create Your OwnWellness programs have become increasingly common incentives offered from big corporations to their employees. These programs give employees incentives to keep track and take responsibility for their health. They encourage employees to exercise, quit smoking, get regular check ups, and seek stress management help as needed, to mention just a few. For employers, this is a good investment into their employees, as it ensures their good health and less time off of work.

Unfortunately, these programs are mostly available only to those who are working for large corporations. If you are one of the many American’s who do not have access to these wonderful, motivating programs, how about taking matters in your own hands? Yes, I’m suggesting you create your own wellness program!

Here are some suggestions to get your started on your very own Wellness Program. Use one of these tips, or a couple, and be on your way to better health today.

Step #1: Create a group:

  • Get your community, local church, or your neighbors together and create a small Wellness group.
  • Create a online blog or site on Wellness and ask your friends and family to join.
  • If a community or a online group is not your thing, simply create a Wellness group in your own home. Your spouse and children are all the members you need.

Step #2: Designate a group Leader:

  • This person will keep track of policies and procedures.
  • Take notes and keep track of important health information.
  • The leader can also schedule meetings and check up on people.
  • You can have just one leader or designate duties depending on the size of your group.

Step #3: Create a health assessment:

  • Have everyone in your group take a health assessment so assess where everyone stands.
  • Use this to find out what the group’s primary goals are. For example, you might have several people who want to lose weight, or that need to quit smoking.
  • Use this assessment as a guide to learn more about the goals in your group.
  • Create your own or use a online health assessment form.

Step #4: Create a wellness library:

  • Find books and articles on weight loss, stress management, breaking bad habits, etc. Keep them handy for quick reference when creating healthy living campaigns for your group.
  • Use your local library or ask everyone to donate a book to the group.

Step #5: Create Healthy living policies and procedures:

  • Use your books or any experts in your group to create some polices that everyone can start following to create a healthy, happy life.
  • Include things from everyone’s health assessments.
  • Involve every member in the group in creating this policies.

Step #6: Create fun campaigns:

  • Use your policies and goals from everyone’s health assessments to create a weekly, bi-weekly, or monthly fitness campaign. Get together to do fun fitness group activities.
  • Create a healthy lunch campaign. Get together as often as your group can for a healthy lunch to discuss what everyone has been eating and what changes can be made.
  • Create small “vent out” sessions for your group to get together and discuss stressful events from their days, weeks, or lives that they can be experiencing. offer advice and guidance on how to effectively manage these everyday stresses.

Other tips:

  • Provide a safe, comfortable place for people from all walks of life.
  • Be understanding and compassionate about everyone’s needs and goals.
  • Understand that everyone works a little differently and some people might need more help and encouragement than others.
  • Stay connected and follow up with everyone in the group for the best results.
  • If possible have everyone start pooling a few bucks each meeting to save up for fun trips, equipment, or services for your group.

What do you think? Would this sort of a wellness program be helpful for your neighborhood or community? Do you have other suggestions to add to this list?

The Universe Guru

How 3D TV is Revolutionizing Video Gaming

How 3D TV is Revolutionizing Video Gaming

3D technology has come to home television. But are consumers ready for it?

Surely 3D television will in time revolutionize the TV experience, including for gaming. But it’ll likely be a slow revolution, as for a number of reasons more people will wait than will upgrade to 3D in the short term. Let’s first look at those reasons, before examining how video gaming fits into the picture.

  1. 3D is coming too close on the tail of high definition television. With so many people having just shelled out the money to upgrade to HD TV, not many of them will accept the idea that that’s now obsolete. Unfortunately, upgrading from a non-3D TV to a 3D TV isn’t the equivalent of a software upgrade; it means starting from scratch with an entirely new television. Current 3D technology requires two separate images to be projected, and a TV capable of further fine tuning to enhance the image and reduce blurring. You can’t alter the HD TV you have to achieve this. You have to buy a new unit.
  2. Most people will find 3D on a small or medium-size screen no big deal, and not worth paying for. So if you’re going to get a 3D TV at all, you’ll likely be buying a large to very large screen TV. The number of people who can afford that isn’t all that great. Standard-size HD TVs look a lot better than standard-size non-HD TVs, so the HD TV market had more room for people with different levels of disposable income.
  3. Maybe some people see it as a trivial issue, but a lot of folks hate the 3D glasses. They can be heavy and fatiguing. Not to mention expensive. Expect to have to shell out $150 or more per pair. And not just one pair, but enough pairs for everyone in the family to watch TV together. Not an easy sell.
  4. 3D makes some people sick, from mild queasiness to serious motion sickness. There goes another share of the market.
  5. Adding 3D obviously enhances the image in that sense, but at the same time there’s a loss of image quality in that the image is dimmer, as each eye gets only half the light from the screen.

These factors won’t stop 3D television by any means, but they will slow the pace of the 3D revolution. But if 3D television has an ace up its sleeve, it may well be its appeal for video gamers.

Most people who think of 3D TV probably associate it with watching movies and maybe sporting events. Consider the impact Avatar had in theaters, for instance. But while people who experience 3D TV demonstrations of movies and television shows tend to nod in approval, people who experience 3D TV demonstrations of video games tend to babble excitedly about how amazing it all is. It’s really with something interactive like that that it hits home how different it feels to be in the middle of the action.

And think about the different levels of commitment of the different activities. Watching TV is something a lot of people do when they’re half paying attention. They’ll watch enough to get the gist of what’s going on, but they may well be doing other things at the same time. Maybe they’re eating, chatting with friends, texting, etc. In any case, looking away from the screen a fair amount. For that kind of activity, the altering of perception with the glasses has more potential to be a nuisance.

But when you’re playing a video game, you’re more fully engrossed in the activity. You’re not combining the activity with other activities for which the glasses are a hindrance. So in that sense, ironically the success of “Avatar” in the theater probably provides more evidence as to how people will experience video games on 3D TV than how they’ll experience movies on 3D TV, because people tend to similarly commit all or almost all of their focus to what’s happening on the screen in a movie theater.

3D TV will significantly alter how people watch standard content on television, but it’ll have an even more dramatic impact on how people play video games. So it’s the serious gamers who could well provide a lot of the impetus to get the 3D revolution rolling.

Stephen Colbert Moves Up to Network TV as Host of ‘The Late Show’ Replacing Letterman

Stephen Colbert Moves Up to Network TV as Host of 'The Late Show' Replacing LettermanThe good news is the “The Colbert Report” is going to be cancelled. The better news, at least from an entertainment perspective, is that this is because Stephen Colbert is to replace David Letterman at “The Late Show.”

This does not mean that Stephen Colbert!, the psycho reimagining of what a conservative pundit must be like will be taking Letterman’s place. Stephen Colbert, the objectively real comedian, rarely actually seen on the air, will be doing the honors.

This is all for the good. The Colbert Report has a decidedly niche audience of stoners and slackers who do not like their news dished out seriously, but prefer it will a good dose of snark. The audience for “The Late Show” is somewhat broader and older and would find Colbert’s persona to be just a tad unsettling.

Mind, Letterman was not shy of going with the nasty, as we remember the time he made a rape joke about one of Sarah Palin’s daughters. Colbert’s on air persona may have been obnoxious, but as far as anyone can recall he never went there.

Still picking Colbert is a gamble. Jimmy Fallon has been doing a great job filling Jay Leno’s considerable shoes on “The Tonight Show” in the same time slot. Rush Limbaugh, among others, is already calling Colbert’s selection an “assault on the American heartland.”

Watching a kinder, gentler Colbert will be interesting to watch, to say the least. He has built up a brand as the angry comedian, viciously attacking conservatives. He will have to broaden his targets if he expects to succeed on network television. Otherwise, in a few years, CBS is going to have to go through this process all over again and try to find a replacement for Colbert, who will be relegated back to the comedy club circuit making jokes at the expense of President Ted Cruz.

In the meantime, it is best to give him a chance. Many people thought Fallon would turn “The Tonight Show” hard to the left as well. This has not happened. Maybe Colbert can make the same transition as well.

Cycling Safety for Bike to Work Day

Cycling Safety for Bike to Work Day

If you’ve decided to change your routine and bike to work on May 15, 2020, be sure to consider safety before you head out the door and hop on your bike.

  1. Wear your helmet. Be sure that your helmet fits properly, and if it doesn’t, take a trip to a local sporting goods store and get a new one. A helmet that fits is essential when you are talking about cycling safety.
  2. Check your brakes, gears, and tire pressure. This is especially important if you aren’t a regular cyclist, and your bike might need a bit of a tune-up or some tender loving care. If you aren’t a biking expert, be sure to take it in to a bike shop to have them give it a once over before you bike to work.
  3. Ride with traffic. Run or walk against traffic, so that you can see it. Bike with traffic.
  4. Follow traffic laws. Not only are you required to cycle with traffic when you bike to work, but you need to follow all regular traffic laws, including, but not limited to, lights, turns, and signaling.
  5. Be twice as cautious-not all motorists are friendly or patient with cyclists. Be more cautious than you would if you were cycling on a bike trail. Roadside cycling requires a vigilant eye, especially because all drivers are not receptive to or understanding of cyclists and sharing the road.
  6. Wear reflective clothing. Don’t head to work on Bike to Work Day 2020 in your work attire. Be sure to wear reflective clothing, and change at work if necessary. Your clothing choices are especially important if you won’t be cycling in full daylight.
  7. Use a cycling lane where provided. If there is a cycling lane or path, stay on it. If not, use the road with caution, and be sure to follow traffic laws and be cautious of drivers.
  8. Keep a safe distance from pedestrians, vehicles, and other cyclists. Keep everyone else in your sight, and assume that you’ll be the one that needs to watch out for them, in case they don’t watch out for you.
  9. Be sure your bike has reflective lights or a headlight for biking at night. Be sure you have reflective rear lights for cars coming up behind you, and a headlight for seeing, especially at night.
  10. Wear proper shoes and clothing. As important as reflective clothing, wear the right kind of clothing. No loose articles, and proper running or cycling shoes are a must for Bike to Work Day 2020.